Generative Agent-Based Architectural Design Computation Based on the Integration of Material, Fabrication and Construction Systems

Agent-based systems have been widely investigated in simulation and modeling. Particularly in social sciences, these systems have utilized an effective computational method to simulating and modeling human behaviors to achieve a better understanding of their behaviors in response to their surrounding environments. In the field of architecture and urbanism, the basic concepts of agent-based systems like Cellular Automata (CA), Game of Life (GA) and Swarms have been widely used to explore spatial organization, navigation and circulations, infrastructure planning,  and the organization of isolated structural systems. In contrast, this research is investigating the possible integration of material, fabrication and construction constraints in a generative agent based modeling and simulation for architectural design. In this study, different aspects of a material system can be defined as separate drivers, coupled together to generate a computational morphogenesis. In this manner,  Behavior-based systems along with Constrained Generating Procedures (CGP’s) which are informed by material characteristics and fabrication constraints are studied to integrate the discrete design processes into a generative agent-based design tool. For example, one generative agent-based tool – depicted above – investigates the possibility of capturing material characteristics and manufacturing constraints of plywood plate structures in agent behaviour. This enables the exploration of the morphospace defined by the digital fabrication environment towards high-performance solutions that are directly producible.


ICD Institute for Computational Design – Prof. Achim Menges

Scientific Development

Ehsan Baharlou



Baharlou, E., Menges, A.: 2013, Behavioural prototyping: g, in: Gengnagel, C., Kilian, A., Nembrini, J., Scheurer, F. (eds.), Rethinking Prototyping, Proceedings of the Design Modelling Symposium Berlin 2013, Verlag der Universität der Künste Berlin. pp. 291-303. (ISBN 978-3-89462-243-5)

Baharlou, E., Menges, A.: 2013, Generative agent-based design computation: Integrating material formation and construction constraints, in Stouffs, R., Sariyildiz S.(eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31th eCAADe Conference, Vol. 2, Technical University of Delft, pp. 165-174. (ISBN 978-94-91207-05-1)